How The Brain Works

What Does it Do, And How Does it Work?

The human brain is a powerful and complex mechanism which controls and regulates all the body's actions, and responses. It uses 20% of your body's blood in order to run all its various functions.

  the human brain

Utilizing the powers of the mind - which might be regarded as the software, or as the flow of electricity that powers the hardware of the brain - it receives, analyzes and responds to information that it collects via our senses.

It controls virtually every area our physical body and our mental processes, including heart rate, breathing, balance, posture, coordination of movement, thinking, memory and learning. It is made up of a left and right side, which each have very different functions and abilities.

The human's left side functions with logic, facts, details, order and pattern perception, safe, practical, forms strategies and is reality based.

The human's right side functions using emotional feeling and imagination, symbols and images, belief, fantasy, creative new possibilities, and is naturally impetuous and risk taking in its nature.

Thoughts are generated within the brain with electrical impulses, which travel along neurons, known collectively as white matter - these are are much like tiny roads of about 100,000 miles of neural pathways.

Every time you have a new thought or mental stimulation, you create a new neural pathway connection, adding to the vast network of communication that goes on within, and of course, your body which it commands.

This is referred to as brain plasticity or neuro-plasticity, and is a highly encouraging fact for our continuing evolution and improvement as a human being.

  Keys to Success

When we have repeated or common thoughts, or with the use of mental training or visualisation, we create stronger and stronger versions of the neural pathways within the mechanism, which are called neural freeways.

Once we have created these neural freeways, it literally makes these thoughts far easier to think about and focus upon - which is great if the thought is a positive one, but can also have highly negative ramifications for those who have negative or addictive thoughts and tendencies.

While new neural pathways can be created by thinking about a particular subject over an extended period for many hundreds of hours, hypnosis techniques make direct contact with the powerful subconscious mind, which create a powerful shortcut to neural pathway creation - and of course, the new thoughts, habits and behaviors which go with them.

This is one of the major reasons why we create mental training products for a wide range of different areas, to help create positive new patterns within your life.

Neural networks

The human brain is a complex and fascinating organ, responsible for controlling every aspect of our lives, from our thoughts and emotions to our movements and bodily functions.

At the heart of this incredible organ are neural networks, complex networks of neurons that enable it to perform a wide range of functions.

Neural networks are composed of billions of interconnected neurons, specialized cells that transmit information throughout the entire body. These neurons communicate with one another through electrical and chemical signals, forming a complex web of connections that allows this mechanism to process and interpret sensory information, generate thoughts and emotions, and coordinate movements and actions.

The structure of neural networks is incredibly complex, with each neuron connecting to multiple other neurons through specialized structures called synapses. These connections are not fixed but can be strengthened or weakened over time through a process known as synaptic plasticity, which is critical for learning and memory formation.

One of the most important features of neural networks is their ability to process information in parallel, capable of performing multiple tasks simultaneously. This is achieved through the use of specialized circuits, known as neural pathways, which are responsible for specific functions such as vision, hearing, and motor control.

The structure and function of neural networks are influenced by a range of factors, including genetics, experience, and environment. For example, research has shown that exposure to environmental toxins such as lead and mercury can disrupt the formation and function of neural networks, leading to cognitive deficits and developmental delays.

Neural networks are also critical for the development and functioning of various regions, including the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for executive functions such as decision-making, planning, and impulse control. Abnormalities in neural networks within this region have been linked to a range of mental health disorders, including ADHD, depression, and schizophrenia.

Recent advances in neuroscience have led to a better understanding of the structure and function of neural networks, as well as the role they play in various functions and disorders. For example, neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have allowed researchers to visualize neural networks in action, providing insights into the mechanisms underlying various cognitive and emotional processes.


The mysterious and elusive nature of consciousness is the state of being aware of one's surroundings, thoughts, and feelings.  It is a fundamental aspect of human experience, yet its nature remains mysterious and elusive.

The brain is the organ responsible for creating and processing conscious experience. However, the exact mechanisms that give rise to consciousness are not yet fully understood.

One widely accepted theory is that consciousness arises from the synchronized activity of neurons in the brain. Neurons communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals, and when these signals synchronize, they give rise to conscious experience.

However, this theory alone does not fully explain the subjective nature of consciousness. Consciousness is a subjective experience, unique to each individual, and cannot be objectively measured or quantified. This has led some researchers to propose that consciousness is not just a property of the brain, but a fundamental aspect of the entire universe.

One theory, known as panpsychism, posits that consciousness is a universal property, existing in all matter. According to this theory, all particles and objects possess some level of consciousness, with more complex systems, exhibit a higher level of consciousness.

Another theory, known as the information integration theory, suggests that consciousness arises from the integration of information across multiple areas. According to this theory, consciousness is not localized to a specific region of the brain, but rather is a distributed process involving the entire brain.

Despite ongoing research, the nature of consciousness remains a mystery. However, advances in imaging technology and computational modeling have provided new insights into the neural basis of conscious experience. Understanding its relationship with consciousness is a critical step in unraveling the mysteries of the human mind.



  neural pathways


The human brain possesses an extraordinary capacity to adapt and transform over time in response to experiences, learning, and injury, known as neuroplasticity. Previously, neuroplasticity was believed to only occur in the developmental stage, but studies have proven that it can continue throughout a person's life, including during adulthood.

Neuroplasticity gives it the ability to reorganize itself in response to changes in your surroundings and experiences. This involves alterations in the strength and connections of neural networks, as well as the development of new neurons and synapses. Neuroplasticity can be triggered by both positive and negative experiences, with its effects being either advantageous or disadvantageous.

Synaptic plasticity is one of the primary mechanisms of neuroplasticity, relating to the ability of synapses (the connections between neurons) to modify their strength in response to activity.

Synaptic plasticity is vital for learning and memory as it enables this multi-faceted organ to establish and reinforce new connections between neurons in response to experiences. When someone learns a new skill, such as playing an instrument or speaking a new language, the neural networks involved in that activity become more efficient and better connected over time, a process known as long-term potentiation (LTP). It is thought to be one of the critical mechanisms of learning and memory.

Another mechanism of neuroplasticity is neurogenesis, the growth of new neurons in the brain. While neurogenesis was formerly believed to occur only in the developmental stage as well, research has shown that new neurons can be created throughout adulthood, especially in the hippocampus, a region linked to learning and memory.

Neurogenesis has been associated with various favorable outcomes, including improved mood, enhanced cognitive function, and increased resilience to stress.

Neuroplasticity also plays an important role in recovery after brain injury. After such injury, it can reorganize itself in response to the loss of function, a process known as functional reorganization. For example, after a stroke that affects the ability to use one hand, the areas that control the other hand may become more active in order to compensate for the loss of function.

This process can be facilitated through rehabilitation, which involves intensive, repetitive training to promote the growth of new neural connections and the strengthening of existing ones.

However, neuroplasticity can also have negative consequences.

For example, chronic pain can lead to changes in the neural networks involved in pain perception, resulting in persistent pain even after the underlying injury or condition has healed. Similarly, trauma and stress can lead to internal changes, including alterations in the stress response system and changes in the size and connectivity of certain regions.



Memory is the process by which the brain encodes, stores, and retrieves information. This complex process involves multiple regions and is essential for learning, decision-making, and everyday functioning.

It stores information in different types of memory, including short-term memory, long-term memory, and working memory.

Short-term memory is a temporary storage system that holds information for a brief period of time, typically for a few seconds or minutes.

Long-term memory, on the other hand, is a more permanent storage system that holds information over longer periods of time, ranging from hours to years.

Working memory is a system that enables us to hold and manipulate information in our minds while we are engaged in other cognitive tasks.

The process of memory formation involves several stages, including encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Encoding refers to the process of transforming sensory information into a form that can be stored in memory. This process involves attention, perception, and other cognitive processes that help us to focus on and process incoming information.

Consolidation is the process by which memories are stabilized and strengthened over time. This process involves the transfer of information from short-term to long-term memory, as well as the strengthening of neural connections that support the memory. Retrieval is the process by which stored information is accessed and brought back into consciousness.

The mechanisms of memory involve changes in the strength and connectivity of neural networks. These changes can occur at the level of individual neurons, as well as at the level of neural circuits and systems.

One of the key mechanisms of memory is synaptic plasticity, the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken in response to activity. Synaptic plasticity is thought to be one of the primary mechanisms of learning and memory, as it allows neural networks to adapt and change over time in response to experience.

Memory can be influenced by a variety of factors, including emotion, attention, and context. Emotional events are often better remembered than neutral events, due to the activation of the amygdala, a region involved in emotion processing.

Attention also plays a crucial role in memory formation, as it helps us to focus on and process relevant information. Contextual cues can also influence memory retrieval, as memories are often more easily retrieved in the same context in which they were encoded.

Memory can be affected by a variety of neurological conditions and injuries, including Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. These conditions can impair memory formation, consolidation, or retrieval, leading to deficits in learning and everyday functioning.


Emotions are complex mental states that involve a range of physiological, cognitive, and behavioral responses. Emotions are essential for human functioning, and they play a crucial role in motivation, decision-making, and social interactions.

The brain processes emotions through a network of regions known as the limbic system, which includes structures such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex, which are involved in the regulation and expression of emotions.

The amygdala, in particular, is a key player in emotion processing, as it is responsible for detecting and responding to emotional stimuli. When we encounter a threat or a reward, the amygdala activates a cascade of physiological and behavioral responses that prepare us to fight, flee, or engage with the situation.

The experience of different emotions is characterized by specific patterns of physiological and cognitive responses. Happiness, for example, is associated with positive affect, increased heart rate variability, and enhanced activity in regions involved in reward processing and positive emotions, such as the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex.

Sadness, on the other hand, is associated with negative affect, decreased heart rate variability, and increased activity in regions involved in negative emotions, such as the amygdala and insula.

Fear is another emotion that is closely linked to physiological and cognitive responses. When we encounter a fearful stimulus, such as a snake or a loud noise, the amygdala activates the sympathetic nervous system, triggering a cascade of physiological responses that prepare us for fight or flight.

These responses include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and heightened attention and arousal. The prefrontal cortex also plays a role in fear processing, as it helps to regulate and modulate the amygdala's response to fearful stimuli.

Anger is another powerful emotion that is associated with a range of physiological and cognitive responses. When we feel angry, the amygdala and other limbic structures activate the sympathetic nervous system, triggering a range of physiological responses that prepare us for action.

These responses include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and heightened attention and arousal. The prefrontal cortex is also involved in anger processing, as it helps to regulate and modulate the emotional and behavioral responses to anger.

Emotions can be influenced by a range of factors, including genetic, environmental, and situational factors. For example, some individuals may be more predisposed to experiencing certain emotions due to their genetic makeup, while others may be more influenced by their social and cultural contexts. Situational factors, such as stress and social support, can also have a significant impact on emotional experiences and responses.

  woman asleep


Sleep is a vital and complex process that is essential for overall health and cognitive functioning. It is controlled by the brain, which regulates the sleep-wake cycle through a complex network of regions and chemical messengers.

TOur regulation of sleep involves several key structures and chemical messengers. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus serves as the body's master clock, synchronizing the sleep-wake cycle with the 24-hour day-night cycle. The SCN regulates the release of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland that promotes sleepiness and helps to regulate the sleep-wake cycle.

Other regions involved in sleep regulation include the brainstem, which controls the transition between wakefulness and sleep, and the thalamus and basal forebrain, which promote and maintain sleep.

Sleep is essential for overall health and cognitive functioning. During sleep, the body and brain undergo a range of restorative processes, including the removal of toxins and waste products, the repair of damaged tissues, and the consolidation of memories.

Sleep also plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, and immune function. Chronic sleep deprivation, on the other hand, is associated with a range of negative health outcomes, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and depression.

Sleep is also crucial for cognitive functioning, particularly for learning, memory, and attention.

During sleep, it consolidates newly acquired information and memories, integrating them into long-term storage. Sleep also promotes creative problem-solving and the generation of novel insights, as it makes new connections and associations between previously learned information.

Chronic sleep deprivation, on the other hand, is associated with impaired cognitive functioning, including reduced attention, working memory, and executive function.

There are several factors that can influence the quality and quantity of sleep. These include lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, and exposure to light, as well as environmental factors such as noise and temperature.

Individual factors such as age, genetics, and medical conditions can also impact sleep quality and quantity.



Brain development is a continuous process that begins in the womb and continues through infancy, childhood, adolescence, and into adulthood.

This process begins in the womb, as neural stem cells divide and differentiate into the various types of cells that make up the brain.

Over time, these cells form complex networks of neurons and glia that enable it to communicate and process information. The growth of these networks is influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including nutrition, stress, and exposure to toxins.

During infancy and early childhood, the brain undergoes a period of rapid growth and development, as new neural connections are formed and existing ones are strengthened through experience and repetition.

This period is known as the critical period, and it is essential for the development of basic cognitive and motor skills such as language, socialization, and spatial awareness.

As children grow and develop, their brains continue to change and adapt to new experiences and challenges. This process is known as neuroplasticity, and it enables it to reorganize itself in response to new learning and experiences. For example, learning a new language can lead to the formation of new neural connections, while chronic stress can lead to the deterioration of existing connections.

During adolescence, the brain undergoes another period of rapid development and reorganization, as the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for executive functions such as planning, decision-making, and impulse control, undergoes significant changes.

This period is marked by increased risk-taking behavior, heightened sensitivity to social cues, and increased susceptibility to addiction and mental health disorders.

As the brain reaches adulthood, it enters a period of relative stability, although it continues to undergo some degree of neuroplasticity throughout life. This process is influenced by a range of environmental factors, including diet, exercise, and social interaction, as well as genetic factors.

Understanding how it develops over time is essential for promoting healthy development and optimizing cognitive and emotional functioning.

The importance of early childhood experiences in shaping development cannot be overstated. Research has shown that children who experience neglect, abuse, or other forms of early adversity are more likely to experience developmental delays, cognitive deficits, and mental health problems later in life.

This is due in part to the impact that stress and trauma can have on development, as chronic stress can lead to the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a key system involved in stress response.

On the other hand, positive early experiences such as responsive caregiving, nurturing environments, and engaging stimulation can promote healthy brain development and enhance cognitive, social, and emotional functioning.

For example, research has shown that children who receive high-quality early childhood education are more likely to graduate from high school, attend college, and earn higher salaries than those who do not.

The effects of environmental factors on brain development continue throughout the lifespan. For example, engaging in regular exercise and maintaining a healthy diet have been shown to promote neuroplasticity and enhance cognitive functioning in adulthood. On the other hand, chronic stress and exposure to environmental toxins such as lead and mercury can have negative effects on function and cognitive abilities.

History of Research on the Brain

The history of research dates back to ancient times, where physicians and philosophers tried to understand its role and functions in the human body. However, it wasn't until the 19th century that significant progress was made.

Ancient Greece: In ancient Greece, Hippocrates proposed that it was the seat of intelligence and that it controlled the body. Aristotle also believed that it played a role in sensation and perception.

The Renaissance: During the Renaissance, anatomists such as Andreas Vesalius began to dissect the brain to study its structure. This led to a better understanding of the brain's anatomy, but little was known about its function.

17th and 18th centuries: In the 17th and 18th centuries, philosophers such as René Descartes proposed that the brain and mind were separate entities. This led to the idea of dualism, which suggested that the mind and body were distinct.

19th century: In the 19th century, advances in technology such as microscopes and staining techniques allowed researchers to study in more detail. In 1848, Phineas Gage, a railroad worker, survived a traumatic brain injury that led to personality changes. This case provided evidence that the brain was involved in personality and behavior.

20th century: In the early 20th century, researchers began to study the electrical activity of the brain using techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). This led to a better understanding of brain waves and their relationship to brain function. In the mid-20th century, advances in neuroimaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed researchers to study the brain's structure and function in more detail.

21st century: In recent years, researchers have made significant progress in understanding the neural basis of cognition, perception, emotion, and behavior. Advances in genetics, optogenetics, and neural engineering have allowed researchers to manipulate and study the brain in unprecedented ways. Additionally, the development of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning has led to new insights into how the brain processes information.


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"Your mind can just as easily show you an ocean of abundant opportunities, as it can the opposite. Its just depends what you focus upon". Craig Townsend